Blake's SAP FICO 01-28 Document

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SAP FICO Financial Accounting - FICO Tutorial and FICO Resources
1 Home FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point   29 Block a Customer FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point   57 Month End Closing FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
2 Overview FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 30 Delete a Customer FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 58 Dunning FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
3 Submodules FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 31 Customer Account Group FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 59 Exchange Rates FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
4 Company Basics FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 32 One-Time Customer Master FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 60 Tables in Module FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
5 Define Business Area FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 33 Post a Sales Invoice FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 61 AR Invoice Processes FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
6 Define Functional Area FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 34 Document Reversal FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 62 AR Account Analysis FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
7 Define Credit Control FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 35 Sales Returns FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 63 AR Reporting FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
8 General Ledger FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 36 Post Incoming Payment FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 64 AA Overview FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
9 COA Group (Chart of Accts) FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 37 Foreign Currency Invoice FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 65 AA Asset Explorer FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
10 Retained Earnings Account FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 38 Incoming Partial Payments FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 66 Cash Management FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
11 G/L Account FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 39 Reset AR Cleared Items FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point      
12 Block G/L Account FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 40 Credit Control FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 67 CO Overview FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
13 Deleting G/L Accounts FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 41 Accounts Payable FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 68 CO Submodules FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
14 Financial Statement Version FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 42 Create a Vendor FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 69 CO Cost Center FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
15 Journal Entry Posting FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 43 Create Vendor Account Group FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 70 CO Create Cost Center FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
16 Fiscal Year Variant FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 44 Display Changed Fields FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 71 CO Post to a Cost Center FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
17 Posting Period Variant FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 45 Block a Vendor FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 72 CO Internal Orders FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
18 Field Status Variant FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 46 Delete a Vendor FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 73 CO Settlement of IO FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
19 Field Status Group FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 47 One-Time Vendor FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 74 CO Profit Center FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
20 Define Posting Keys FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 48 Post Purchase Invoice FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 75 CO Posting to Profit Center FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
21 Define Document Type FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 49 Purchase Returns FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 76 CO Profit Center Standard Heirarchy FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
22 Document Number Ranges FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 50 Post Outgoing Vendor Payment FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 77 CO Assigning Cost to Profit Centers FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
23 Post with Reference FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 51 Foreign Currency Invoice FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 78 CO Assigning Materials to Profit Centers FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
24 Hold a G/L Document Posting FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 52 Withholding Tax in vendor invoice FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 79 CO Tables in Module FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
25 Park a G/L Document Posting FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 53 Outgoing Partial Payments FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 80 CO Product Costing FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
26 G/L Reporting FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 54 Reset AP Cleared Items FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 81 CO Profitability Analysis FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
27 Accounts Receivable FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 55 Automatic Payment Run FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 82 CO Planning Methods FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point
28 Customer Master Data FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 56 Posting Rounding Differences FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point 83 FI - Integration FICO_Doc     Tutorials Point

 


(FI - 01 Thru 66) and (CO - 67 Thru 83)



(01) Home

This is an introductory tutorial that covers the basics of SAP FICO and how to deal with its various modules and sub-modules.

Audience

This tutorial will be extremely useful for professionals who aspire to learn the ropes of SAP FICO and implement it in practice.
It is especially going to help consultants who are mainly responsible for implementing Financial Accounting and Cost Accounting with SAP ERP Financials.

Prerequisites

It is an elementary tutorial and you can easily understand the concepts explained here with a basic knowledge of how a business deals its Financials.
However, it will help if you have some prior exposure to accounting and how to deal with financial data.


(02) FI Overview

SAP FI comprises of the following sub-components −

Where Do We Use SAP FI?

SAP FI module enables you to manage financial accounting data within an international framework of multiple companies, currencies, and languages.

SAP FI module mainly deals with the following financial components −

SAP FI consultants are mainly responsible for implementing Financial Accounting and Cost Accounting with SAP ERP Financials.


(03) Submodules

SAP FI has a collection of submodules, as depicted in the following screenshot −

000

Finance Accounting - General Ledger

Common T-codes that are used to maintain G/L accounting −

Finance Accounting - Accounts Receivable and Payable (AR / AP)

Common SAP AR T-codes −

Common SAP AR Tables −

Common SAP AP T-codes −

Common SAP AP Tables −

Finance Accounting Asset Accounting

Common T-codes used for Asset Accounting −

Example − When a company purchases an item that can be considered as an asset, the details will be passed to Asset accounting module from the SAP MM module.

Finance Accounting Bank Accounting

You can create and process any type of bank transactions using the Bank accounting component.

Common Bank Accounting module tables that are used for this are −

Common T-codes with bank accounting −

Finance Accounting Travel Management

It helps an organization to manage travel expenses in an efficient manner, as it provides integration with all the other modules of SAP.

Common Travel Management T-codes −

Common Travel Management tables −

Finance Accounting Fund Management

Common tables that store Funds management data −

Common SAP Funds Management T-codes −

Finance Accounting Legal Consolidation

Common tables in FI Legal Consolidation module −

Note − FI-Legal Consolidation module was supported in older versions of SAP ERP implementation.
            This work is performed by SAP Business Process Consolidation BPC and SEM-BCS now.


(04) Company Basics

A company is defined as the smallest unit for which financial statements can be created in accordance with commercial legal regulations.

In SAP FI, a company can comprise of multiple codes, however it acts as a single unit for which financial statements are available. All the company codes must use the same chart of accounts list and fiscal year, however each code can have a different local currency.

A chart of accounts list consists of all the chart of accounts that can be used and each code must have one chart of account.

A fiscal year normally consists of twelve months’ time period where company creates the financial statements.

SAP FI – Create Company

Login to SAP FICO

Use T-code SPRO → click on SAP Reference IMG → New window will open.

001a

Expand SAP Customizing implementation guide → Enterprise Structure → Definition → Finance Accounting → Define Company → click on Execute (see the pointer in the screenshot).

002

A new window will open → click on New Entries → New Entries: Details of added entry

003

You need to provide the following details to create a new company −

004

The next step is to save the company details → CTRL+S or as shown in the above screenshot.

SAP FI – Create Company Code

In SAP FI, a company can comprise of multiple codes, however it acts as a single unit for which financial statements are available. Company code is the smallest unit in an organization for which financial statements (profit-loss statement, etc.) can be generated.

Create, edit, delete a company code

Let us discuss how to create, edit, and delete a company code. Take a look at the following screenshot.

005

Expand Enterprise Structure as mentioned in the previous topic → Definition → Financial Accounting → Edit, Copy, Delete, check company code → Execute using click on the watch image → New window will open → You can create a new company code by selecting both the options.

04 06

Select Edit, Copy, Delete, and Check Company Code. It allows you to copy all the configurations and tables automatically.

If you select Edit company code, you will get the following window → click on New Entries and update the code details.

04 07

04 08

You can click on the Address button and update the following fields. Once the Address field is updated, click the Save button.

04 09

(05) SAP FI - Define Business Area

Example

There is a big company XYZ which runs multiple businesses. Let us assume it has three different domains like manufacturing, marketing, and sales.

Now you have two options −

The benefits of using Business Areas in this case are as follows −

Note − Business areas are used more in Controlling as compared to Finance Accounting.

How to create a new Business Area in SAP FI?

Expand Enterprise Structure as mentioned in the previous topic → Definition → Financial Accounting → Define Business Area → Execute → Go to New Entries.

007

008

Enter the 4 digit Business Area code and save the configuration.

009

(06) Define Functional Area

Function Areas in finance accounting are used to define the expenses in a company according to individual function units.
The most common Functional Areas are −

How to Define a Functional area in SAP FI?

You can define a Functional Area using the T-code FM_FUNCTION (Earlier it was OKBD, but this is obsolete). It will open a new window.

Click on Create Functional Area as shown below and a new window will open.

011

Enter the following details −

Once all the details are provided, click the Save button at the top.
Once you click Save, you will see a message at the bottom that a new functional area has been created.

012

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → FI Global Settings → Company Code → Cost of Sales Accounting → Activate cost of sales accounting for preparation.

013

(07) SAP FI - Define Credit Control

How to define a Credit Control Area?

07 01 07 02 07 03 07 04 07 05 07 06

(08) SAP FI - General Ledger

SAP FI – Chart of Accounts

The FI chart of accounts represents the list of GL accounts that are used to meet the daily needs and the operating country’s legal requirement in a company.
The master chart of accounts must be assigned to each company code.

Chart of accounts (COA) can be divided into the following types −

How to create a new Chart of Accounts?

You can create a new Chart of Accounts by using the T-code OB 13 or by going to Finance Accounting → G/L accounts.

08 01 08 02 08 03

(09) SAP FI - COA Group (Chart of Accts)

How to define Chart of Accounts Group?

09 01 09 02

09 03 09 04

(10) SAP FI - Retained Earnings Account

How to define Retained Earnings Account?

10 01 10 02

(11) SAP FI - G/L Account

How to Create a New G / L Account?

You can use the T-code FS00 to centrally define a G/L account. Refer the following screenshot.

11 01

11 02

You can also use the following path −

In SAP R/3, go to Accounting → Finance Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally.

11 03

In the field G/L Account, enter the account number of G/L account and the company code key and click the Create icon as shown in the following screenshot −

11 04

The next step is to enter the details in the Charts of Account.

Account Group

Account Group determines the group for which the G/L account must be created, for example, Administrative Expenses, etc.

11 05

P&L Statement Acct

If the G/L account is to be used for P&L Statement Account, then select this option, otherwise use Balance Sheet Account.

Under description, provide a short text or G/L account long text.

11 06 11 07

Click Create / bank interest and provide data in the following fields −

11 08

Once the details are entered, click the Save button to create a G/L account.

Posting to General Ledger

After you complete the payroll run, the next step is to post payroll run to G/L accounts. Posting to G/L account from Payroll run includes the following −

How Posting is performed?

During each Payroll run, payroll contains different posting types for wage to relevant GL accounts. While posting to GL account following points should be considered −

Other Wage type in Payroll run like accruals, other insurance types, etc. should also be posted to two accounts- debited as an expense and credited as a provision in GL posting.


(12) SAP FI - Block G/L Account

12 01 12 02

(13) SAP FI - Deleting G/L Accounts

13 01 13 02

SAP FI – Modify a G/L Account

13 03 13 04

(14) SAP FI - Financial Statement Version

Financial statement versions are used to create the financial statements, to run account balance reports and for General Ledger accounting planning.

You can also define multiple financial statement versions to generate financial statements in different formats.
Follow the steps given below to create financial statement versions −

T-code SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Closing → Document → Define Financial Statement Versions → Execute.

14 01

Click the button New Entries as shown below −

14 02

Provide the following details −

14 03

14 04

(15) SAP FI - Journal Entry Posting

How to post a journal Entry in SAP FI?

Use T-code FB50 → Provide the Company code.

15 01

Enter the document date as shown below −

15 02

The next step is to provide the following details −

Similarly, for the Debit, provide data in the following fields −

15 03

Click the Save button and you will get the document number to be posted for the company code.


(16) SAP FI - Fiscal Year Variant

Fiscal year variant contains the number of posting periods in a fiscal year and the number of special periods. You can define up to 16 posting periods in a fiscal year in the controlling component CO.

You need to specify the fiscal year variant for each company code. When you create a controlling area, you also need to specify the fiscal year variant.

The fiscal year variants of the company code and controlling area may only differ in the number of special periods used. You need to ensure that the fiscal year variants match. In other words, they may not have a time conflict.

How to create a Fiscal year variant?

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Fiscal Years → Maintain Fiscal year variant → Execute.

16 01

It will open the following window.

16 02

Click New Entries and it will open a new window as shown below.

16 03

Provide the following details −

The next step is to save the details. Enter the customizing request number that a new fiscal year variant is created.

16 04

You can maintain the posting period by using the Period option under the Fiscal year variant.


(17) SAP FI - Posting Period Variant

SAP FI Posting period variant is used to maintain accounting periods that are open for posting and all closed period are balanced.
This is used for opening and closing period in the fiscal year for posting purpose.

You can assign these posting periods to one or more company codes.

How to create posting period variants in SAP FI?

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Posting Periods → Define Variant for open Posting Periods → Execute.

17 01

It will open a new window. Now, click New Entries.

17 02

It will open another window, as shown below. Enter the 4-digit Posting Period Variant and name of the field. Click the Save icon to save this variant.

17 03

Open and Close Posting Periods

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Posting Periods → Open and Close Posting Periods → Execute.

17 04

Click the button New Entries, as shown in the following screenshot.

17 05

Now, you need to provide the following details −

17 06

Once all the details are provided, click the Save button to save the open and closing posting periods.


(18) SAP FI - Field Status Variant

Field Status Variant is used to define the fields which are used for input like cost center, profit center, plant, etc., which are entry fields, and hidden fields.
Field status Variant is a tool which is provided by SAP to assign the same set of properties to more than one object.

Example − We define fiscal year variant and it can be assigned to more than one company code.
                   If a field status variant is assigned to more than one company code, the same set of screen field will be displayed while posting those company fields.

Difference between field status variant and field status group

Field status variant will have field status groups.
Field status group is maintained in GL account and it defines the fields while posting to the GL.

How to create Field Status Variant?

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Line Item → Controls → Define Field Status Variant → Execute.

18 01

It will open a new window.
Select field status variants 0001 by clicking the box before 0001→ click the Copy icon as shown below.

18 02 18 03

18 04

You will get a confirming message, something like: "Number of dependent entries copied: 41".
Click the Save button.

18 05

(19) SAP FI - Field Status Group

All these field status groups are clubbed to a field status variant and the Field status variant is assigned to a company code.
With this, field’s status groups from fields status variant can only be assigned when a General Ledger account is created for a company code.


(20) SAP FI - Define Posting Keys

Different Account Types in SAP FI −

Asset Posting Keys

Posting Key Description Debit/Credit
70 Debit Asset Debit
75 Credit Asset Credit

Material Posting Keys

Posting Key Description Debit/Credit
89 Stock Inward Movement Material Debit
99 Stock outward Movement Material Credit

There are various Account type posting keys available in SAP FI.

How to create a SAP FI Posting Key?

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Line Item → Controls → Define Posting Keys → Execute.

20 01

Click the Create icon.

20 02

Enter the 2-digit numeric code (Example ‘02’) and the name of the posting key and press the Enter key.

20 03

Now you need to provide the following details −

20 04

The next step is to click the Save icon to successfully configure the posting key.


(21) SAP FI - Define Document Type

Common Document Type Keys are as follows −

Document Type Document Type Description
AA Asset Posting
AN Net Asset Posting
DR Customer Invoice
DZ Customer Payment
KA Vendor Document
KG Vendor Credit Memo

How to define Document Type in SAP FI?

Go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Document Header → Define Document Types → Execute.

21 01

It will open a new window. Click New Entries and provide the following details −

21 02

Once you enter the above data, click the Save icon.
Enter the description of document and save.
It will save the configuration of the document type.


(22) SAP FI - Document Number Ranges

You can assign one or more document types to number range.
The number range is applicable to document type as mentioned in the document posting and entry.

How to define Document Number Ranges in SAP FI?

You can define document number ranges in SAP FI in two way.
You can either use the T-code FBN1 or go to SPRO → SAP Reference IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Setting → Document → Define Document Number Ranges → Execute.

22 01

A new window will open. Enter the company code and click Change Intervals as shown below.

22 02

It will open another window. Click Insert Interval.

22 03

Enter the following details −

22 04

After providing all these details, click Save to save the changes.


(23) SAP FI - Post with Reference

23 01 23 02

(24) SAP FI - Hold a G/L Document Posting

You can also hold posting of a G/L document or temporarily save the document in the following conditions −

24 01

To hold a G/L document posting, you can use the T-code FB50, and enter the following details −

24 02

The next step is to click the Hold (F5) button at the top → Enter the temporary document number and click Hold document.

24 03

(25) SAP FI - Park a G/L Document Posting

SAP FI also provides an option with Limited Authorization Amount for Posting.

Example

An Accountant has an authority to post documents to a maximum amount $2000. Now he has to feed a document with an amount of $5000 for which he does not have the authority.

SAP FI provides a Park Facility for the document which allows the user to save the document but the amount is not posted in the G/L accounts.

This allows to review the document later reviewed by a higher authority Personnel who has appropriate posting amount authorization. Once approved, the document is posted in the G/L accounts.

How to park a G/L document posting?

To hold a G/L document posting, you can use the T-code FB50, and enter the following details −

25 01

25 02

The next step is to press the Hold (F5) button at the top → Enter the temporary document number and click Park document.

25 03

(26) SAP FI - G/L Reporting

The most common ones are −

G / L Chart of Accounts List

26 01

A new window will open. Enter the Chart of Accounts key → Execute (F8).

26 02

This will open a list of all G/L Chart of Accounts with respect to the key mentioned.

26 03

G / L Account Balances

26 04

Enter the input parameters like company code to generate G/L Account Balances report → Execute.

G / L Account List

Use the T-code S_ALR_87012328 or go to the path given below −

Accounting → Finance Accounting → General Ledger → Information System → General Ledger Reports → Master Data → G/L Account List → G/L Account List.

26 05

Enter Input parameters such as Company Code, Chart of Accounts, etc. to apply filter to G/L Account List → Execute.

26 06

G/L Account Totals and Balances

Use the T-code S_ALR_ 87012301 or go to the path shown in the following screenshot.

26 07

Enter the report input parameters such as company code, COA, etc. and click Execute.
A report will be generated based on input parameters.


(27) SAP FI - Accounts Receivable

SAP FI Accounts Receivable component records and manages accounting data of all customers. It is also an integral part of sales management.

All postings in Accounts Receivable are also recorded directly in the General Ledger. Different G/L accounts are updated depending on the transaction involved (for example, receivables, down payments, and bills of exchange). The system contains a range of tools that you can use to monitor open items such as account analyses, alarm reports, due date lists, and a flexible dunning program.

The correspondence linked to these tools can be individually formulated to suit your requirements. This is also the case for payment notices, balance confirmations, account statements, and interest calculations. Incoming payments can be assigned to due receivables using user-friendly screen functions or by electronic means such as EDI.

The payment program can automatically carry out direct debiting and down-payments.

We have a range of tools available for documenting the transactions that occur in Accounts Receivable, including balance lists, journals, balance audit trails, and other standard reports. When drawing up financial statements, the items in foreign currency are revalued, customers who are also vendors are listed, and the balances on the accounts are sorted by their remaining life.

Accounts Receivable is not merely one of the branches of accounting that forms the basis of adequate and orderly accounting. It also provides the data required for effective credit management (as a result of its close integration with the Sales and Distribution component) as well as important information for the optimization of liquidity planning.


(28) SAP FI - Customer Master Data

You must create a master record for each account that you require. The master record contains data that controls how business transactions are recorded and processed by the system. It also includes all the information about a customer that you need to be able to conduct business with him.

Customer master data is used by both the accounts and sales department in an organization. By maintaining customer master data centrally, it can be accessed throughout your organization and avoid the need to enter the same information twice. You can also avoid inconsistencies in master data by maintaining it centrally.

Example − There is a change in address of one of your customers, so you only have to enter this change once in the system, and your accounting and sales departments will always have up-to-date information.

How to create a customer master data centrally in SAP FI?

Use the T-code FD01 or go to Accounting → Finance Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Master Records → Maintain Centrally → Create.

28 01

A new window will open. Enter the following details −

28 02

Once you click Continue, a new screen appears with customer data. Enter the following customer data and click Save.

28 03

Click the Control Data tab and enter Corporate Group etc. if the customer belongs to a corporate group.

28 04

Click the second option Company Code data and go to Account Management.

28 05

Enter Recon. Account number from the list provided. Go to Payment Transactions, enter terms of payment, tolerance group, etc.

28 06

Once you are done with all the details, click the Save icon at the top.

28 07

Reserve